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oil shale south africa

5.3 Financing of shale gas and prospects for South Africa 27 5.4 The MPRDA and South Africa's oil and gas sector 29 5.5 Royalty rates 30 5.6 Free carry and tax waivers in South Africa 30 5.7 Timing for optimal revenue streams 31 5.8 Shale-gas pricing 31 5.9 Shale-gas pricing in the South African context 32 5.10 Shale-gas beneficiation 32 6.

May 09, 2019· Extracting and processing shale oil is an expensive and difficult process. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are less expensive to extract. Australia, Brazil, Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa began mining oil shale in the 19th and 20th centuries, but they all stopped production by the 1960s. The U.S. ceased production in the early 1980s.

Aug 03, 2017· As at 2014, South Africa's total primary energy consumption was satisfied by coal (70%), oil (23%), natural gas (3%), nuclear energy (3%) and …

Aug 04, 2011· In Arid South African Lands, Fracking Controversy Emerges. The contentious practice of hydrofracking to extract underground natural gas has now made its way to South Africa's Karoo, a semi-desert known for its stark beauty and indigenous plants. But opposition is growing amid concern that fracking will deplete and pollute the area's scarce ...

The Prince Albert Formation within the Karoo Basin of South Africa is composed of mudstones with shales and some small sandstone units. The overlying Whitehill Formation is comprised of fine grained, finely laminated black organic rich shale with dolomite lenses near the base.

Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over production of oil-shale facilities in South Africa. The deposits of oil-shales, and torbanites are described. The operations at the production facilities are also presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.

With an estimated technical recovery amount of 390 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of shale gas found in the Karoo Basin in south-central South Africa, ... To read this article you need to be a subscriber ... "Legislative and Regulatory Aspects of Shale Gas Exploration and Production in South Africa" OGEL 4 (2018), URL: ...

South Africa exports of Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands was $436.20K . South Africa exported Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands to Zimbabwe ($98.15K, 205,330 Kg), Mozambique ($97.21K, 115,080 Kg), Eswatini ($81.71K, 245,355 Kg), Zambia ($42.48K, 63,200 Kg), Congo, Rep. ($32.18K, 36,000 Kg). Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands imports by country in 2019

According to a June 2013 report released by the U.S. Energy Information Administration ("USEIA"), South Africa has 390 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically recoverable shale gas resources. 1 South Africa's shale gas resources are located in the Karoo Basin, which covers nearly two-thirds of South Africa. 2 Estimates of recoverable resources in the Karoo have varied widely over the ...

Aug 09, 2021· The value of exports of commodity group 2714 "Bitumen and asphalt, natural; bituminous or oil shale and tar sands; asphaltites and asphaltic rocks." from South Africa totalled $ 6.89 million in 2020.Sales of commodity group 2714 from South Africa decreased by 48% in value terms compared to 2019. exports of commodity group 2714 "Bitumen and asphalt, natural; bituminous or oil shale and tar ...

Africa's oil and gas producers shouldn't hold their breath though. Ultimately, the structural shift in global oil and gas markets as a result of the Shale boom, should force a re-think among Africa's policy makers on how to develop and monetize natural resources locally or at best, regionally.

South Africa, however, has very limited proven conventional oil and natural gas reserves but, surprisingly, may have large shale gas reserves. Indeed, EIA estimated shale gas reserves in South Africa to be approximately 390 Tcf in a report dated June 2013, making the country the eighth-largest holder of technically recoverable shale gas ...

Jun 17, 2014· The hype over shale gas exploration or fracking continues as the ANC recently announced that shale gas is a "game-changer" and must be exploited for South Africas benefit. But the viability of fracking rests on settling the tension between whether it should be privatized for shareholder profit or if its rewards should maximize social benefit. Sadly, as current debates in the mining sector go ...

Extracting and processing shale oil is an expensive and difficult process. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are less expensive to extract. Australia, Brazil, Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa began mining oil shale in the 19th and 20th centuries, but they all stopped production by the 1960s. The U.S. ceased production in the early 1980s.

South Coast Comprising the Bredasdorp, Pletmos, Gamtoos, Algoa and Southern Outeniqua sub-basins Best estimate for Prospective Resources in place = 5.14 Billion Barrels of oil and 19.4 Tcf of gas New Age Impact Africa Total CNR PetroSA Bayfield Energy

The International Energy Agency claims that there are 485 trillion cubic feet of shale gas beneath the surface in South Africa. This may be a wild overestimate, but has acted as a stimulus to certain oil companies to apply for exploration rights. The amount of technically recoverable gas is not yet known.

South Africa's energy demand is set to double, potentially triple by 2050. South Africa will increasingly need to import yet more energy (oil, gas and electricity) as it continues to export high value (quality) coal. 2 South Africa is an electricity intensive country and more than 90% of its electricity is

Almost all the shale gas development has taken place in the US where production has increased from about 1 to nearly 16 trillion cubic feet (tcf) over the past 25 years. There are indications that shale gas may be present in a semi-desert region of South Africa known as the Karoo. The core region alone has an area of 400 000 km².

Jul 13, 2017· South Africa has been considering shale gas development in the Karoo – an arid part of the country that spans more than 400 000 square kilometres – …

Jan 06, 2010· south africa 06/01/2010 Shell Calls Shots on Shale Gas A technical cooperation agreement awarded in mid-December to the Anglo-Dutch major RoyalDutch/Shell by Petroleum Agency Sa involving the Karoo basin will put an effective freeze on other bids to explore in the area.

Sep 02, 2021· Africa-focused exploration company Impact Oil & Gas Limited has completed the farm-out of 50 percent working interest and operatorship in the …

Mar 01, 2017· But South Africa has yet to award licenses for shale gas exploration, and considering how controversial shale exploration usually is, the potential giant offshore discoveries could be a more ...

Oct 04, 2017· On top of this, good governance is a prerequisite if South Africa is to proceed to shale gas development. South Africa's energy mix South Africa's formal energy economy is …

Dec 11, 2018· A forum for discussion of regional topics including oil depletion but also government, society, and the future. 11 posts • Page 1 of 1. Karoo South Africa Shale Gas. by Tanada » Thu Sep 28, 2017 2:07 pm . ... suggesting South Africa had the fourth largest shale gas reserves in the world.

South Africa 66 0 Russia 49 76 Brazil 42 5. Gas. Oil. Notional additional resources. Gas. Oil. Gboe. Gbbl. Conventional. 1100. 1650. Shale oil & gas. 1200. 350. Additional (%) 110. 20. Source : EIA 2013. Shale gas Shale oil Gboe Gboe Poland 25 3,3 France 23 4,7 Romania 9 0,3 Denmark 5 0 UK 4 0,7 Netherlands 4 2,9 Others 9 1 Total 80 12,9 ...

May 05, 2021· Gas as an energy generation source for South Africa is looking decidedly more domestic and will need to be carefully integrated with coal-use to reach a tipping point leading to a less-polluting energy generation source. The controversial shale gas question will again become an important issue which must be resolved following several years of ...

Nigeria has an oil shale deposit of high economic value and this is found in Imo (Okigwe) and Abia State, other Africa countries with oil shale reserves include South Africa, Egypt, and Madagascar. Just like tar sand that has a significant amount of oil-rich bitumen, oil shale also has a quiet amount of oil that can be used to produce various ...

May 17, 2013· 6. For shale oil, identify those U.S. shales that best match the geophysical characteristics of the foreign shale oil formation to estimate the oil in-place recovery factor. 3 For shale gas, determine the recovery factor based on geologic complexity, pore …

Jun 18, 2014· Shale Gas Economics, South Africa. South Africa does not have this advantage and this does influence the economics of shale gas exploration, for a start. The key to the success of U.S. shale gas drilling is that the pace of drilling is done rapidly with quick turn-around periods. We are talking days as opposed to months. There is a good reason ...

Apart from shale, South Africa has limited oil and gas reserves but relies on a large coal mining industry in order to meet most of its energy needs. In 2015, 71% of South Africa's total primary energy consumption came from coal, followed by oil (23%), natural gas (3%), nuclear (3%), and renewables (less than 1%, primarily from hydropower), ...

Mar 04, 2013· Extracting and processing shale oil is an expensive and difficult process. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are less expensive to extract. Australia, Brazil, Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa began mining oil shale in the 19th and 20th centuries, but they all stopped production by the 1960s. The U.S. ceased production in the early 1980s.

Feb 27, 2014· 8) South Africa: 390 tcf – The development of shale gas exploration in the Karoo region of South Africa could be a game changer for the South African economy Article continues on next page 9) Russia : 285 tcf – Despite its massive reserves, Russia has done little to cultivate a shale revolution of its own, preferring to focus on its ...

Onshore Karoo Basins Karoo Basins Shale Gas. The southern main Karoo basin of South Africa is considered prospective for shale gas exploration.Currently the Permian Whitehill Formation is thought to be most favourable target formation for shale gas exploration and production, owing to the high total organic content (TOC) averaging 5%, favourable maturities (Ro = 1- 4 %), thickness (30m average ...

Aug 05, 2013· According to PWC's 2013 Africa Oil & Gas Review, (Review on current development in the oil and gas industry in Africa, June 2013), South Africa is estimated to have the world's fifth largest reserves of shale gas.With the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) lifting its 18-month moratorium on exploration in the Karoo, the flame is now reignited in the rush for South Africa's hydrocarbon ...

Further advancements in shale gas and oil production could mean that the USA will meet all of its energy requirements by 2030. This is a remarkable progression as the USA was for decades the largest oil importer. In South Africa fracking has been the subject of heated debate.

2 · Shale Restraint Means 'Modest' Oil Growth in 2022, BNEF Says. (Bloomberg) -- U.S. shale oil production will expand at a "modest rate" over the next 18 months even as prices touch multiyear highs, according to BloombergNEF, leaving OPEC in a powerful position as the world cries out for more barrels.

Shale gas 7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9 The shale gas revolution 9 Shale gas in the United States 10 The production of shale gas 10 Environmental issues associated with shale gas production 11 0 ;OL SHYNL ZL VM ^H[LY YLXPYLK MVY MYHJRPUN III. Water contamination 11 III. Seismic events 11 0= =LU[PUN HUK ÅHYPUN VM NHZ Shale gas in Africa 12

Oil shale formation takes place in a number of depositional settings and has considerable compositional variation. Oil shales can be classified by their composition (carbonate minerals such as calcite or detrital minerals such as quartz and clays) or by their depositional environment (large lakes, shallow marine, and lagoon/small lake settings).Much of the organic matter in oil shale is of ...

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